I tried for years to do two simple things: brush my teeth for two minutes every night and floss.
Let's just say the results were uninspiring.
And then I took my kids in for their dental checkup, and the hygienist gave us two little plastic hourglasses -- one blue, one green. I made my kids brush until the sands of time passed through an hourglass, indicating two minutes had elapsed. Then I started using an hourglass myself. I would spot one perched on the sink, turn it over, brush and then floss.
I didn't notice much of a change until the night, not too long ago, when I decided it was late and I could ditch the dental routine just this once -- and before I knew it I was standing in front of the bathroom mirror like a zombie slave of the American Dental Association, my teeth squeaky clean and a piece of mint-flavored floss in my hand.
Seems I had stumbled into a good formula for forming a healthy habit.
"The general principle is, try and keep it simple in terms of what you want to do, try to do it each time you encounter [the triggering event], just keep doing it, and make sure you're realistic in what you expect the behavior to be like and what its consequences will be," says Benjamin Gardner Sood, a psychologist who lectures in motivation, habits and health at University College London.
"If that's all in place, then I'm very confident that you will form a habit."
That's not to say that forming a habit is easy. If it were, we would all be eating our green vegetables, exercising regularly and flossing with great abandon. But intentional habit creation is possible, and though research on human habit formation is still in its early stages, studies that have come out in recent years provide insights and suggest basic guidelines.
One of the places I went right in the case of flossing -- and had all too often gone wrong in the past -- was to choose a behavior that was triggered by a regularly occurring outside event.
In animal research conducted by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Ann Graybiel and her colleagues, rodents received start signals, ran mazes and reaped food rewards. At first, neurons in the animals' brains fired fairly constantly throughout the maze-running process, but as the animals learned how to correctly run the mazes and their behavior became more automatic, neuron activity concentrated at the very beginning of the process (when the animal received the start signal) and at the very end, suggesting that the start signal was playing a key role in triggering the habit, and the reward was vital to its completion.
Similarly, I seem to have needed a start signal to cue my automatic behavior. I'd had little success when I assumed that a two-minute brushing habit could be triggered by, well, my repeated decision to brush. Seeing the hourglass by the sink every night at bedtime was enough of a reminder to turn over the hourglass, which in turn did get me on track to brushing for two minutes.
I got my small but consistent reward -- clean-feeling teeth and a sense of accomplishment -- and eventually it was hard not to turn the hourglass or brush once I'd done it.
Over a fairly long period, probably more than a year, the brushing and subsequent flossing became very consistent and -- bingo -- I was behaving as predictably as a lab rat.
I probably owed my success, in part, to my choice of habit. In a 2011 study of human volunteers in the European Journal of Social Psychology, researchers found evidence that simpler behaviors (drinking water after breakfast) are more easily converted into habits than more complex ones such as exercising.
Similarly, M.J. Ryan, an executive coach and author of "This Year I Will : How to Finally Change a Habit, Keep a Resolution, or Make a Dream Come True," says to focus on one specific thing that you're truly motivated to change. It's not enough to say, "I want to be organized," she says. You have to whittle that down to something along the lines of, "I want to take 10 minutes every day to straighten up my desk."
The 2011 study in the European Journal of Psychology found that for a subset of 96 volunteers, it took a median time of 66 days to form a new habit. The total time it took for a behavior to become habit ranged from 18 to 254 days. That's a marathon, not a sprint, and experts say motivation is key; you've got to pick something you really want to do and that offers a rewarding outcome.