Shouting "Death to America" and "Long life to Osama bin Laden," more than 5,000 Islamic students marched on Pakistan's northwestern provincial capital Thursday.
Religious leaders and students in Pakistan's deeply conservative Northwest Frontier Province, suspect Washington is preparing to attack neighboring Afghanistan, where suspected terrorist Osama bin Laden lives.
The protesters threatened to wage a holy war if such an attack is carried out.
Last year, the United States fired Tomahawk cruise missiles at camps in eastern Afghanistan, where bin Laden was believed to be staying. Washington has accused him of masterminding the bombings of its embassies in Tanzania and Kenya last summer.
Afghanistan's Taliban religious army refuses to hand over bin Laden, saying it has no extradition treaty with the United States and bin Laden is an honored guest, which guarantees him protection.